We do not usually think of Russia as a country with a long-standing and traditional Buddhist population. But it is. Strangely, we do not usually think of it as a colonial power either. But it was. There are numerous books and monographs about the encounter between various colonial powers – Britain, France, Holland, Portugal, etc. – and Buddhism and the effects that they had on Buddhism, but almost none about the fate of Buddhism in the Russian Empire and its successor the Soviet Union.